Genetics are relevant … [but] it seems highly unlikely that providing genetic risk information is going to be the magical formula that is going to fix this complex problem. The volunteers got 22 hourlong classes with dietitians on healthy low-fat diets eat less oils, fatty meats, full-fat dairy, and nuts or low-carb ones reduce cereals, grains, rice, starchy vegetables, and legumes, as well as on the dangers of eating mindlessly. Both groups were instructed to eat lots of vegetables and very few foods with added sugars, trans fats, or refined flour. People were remarkably compliant about following their assigned low-fat or low-carb diet. Halfway through the study, fat consumption was 50 and 87 grams per day, respectively, while carb consumption was and grams per day, a pattern that held for the full 12 months. There was virtually no difference in weight loss between the two groups after 12 months:
The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in investigations of dietary factors, genetic factors, and their interactive effects on obesity and weight loss. Even with a tremendous body of research conducted, controversy still abounds regarding the relative effectiveness of various weight-loss diets. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have made great strides in unraveling the genetic basis of regulation of body weight. In prospective cohorts, reproducible evidence is emerging to show interactions between genetic factors and dietary factors such as sugar-sweetened beverage on obesity. However, replication, functional exploration, and translation of the findings into personalized diet interventions remain the chief challenges. Preliminary but promising data have emerged to lend support to gene—diet interaction in determining weight loss and maintenance; and studies in the area hold great promise to inform future personalized diet interventions on the reduction of obesity and related health problems. Obesity has become an increasingly serious health issue throughout the world [ 1 ]. As one of the main stream efforts struggling against rapid rise of obesity and its comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers, various diet interventions have been proposed to improve weight loss and long-term weight maintenance [ 4, 5 ]. In the past few years, genome-wide investigations have identified several dozens of variants associated with body weight and obesity [ 9, 10 ].
There was virtually no difference in weight loss between the two groups after 12 months: Among the identified loci, FTO shows the strongest association. This article describes consistent evidence showing an interaction between obesity genetic susceptibility and intake of SSB in three prospective cohorts. Variation at the melanocortin 4 receptor gene and response to weight-loss interventions in the diabetes prevention program. In addition, several dietary factors have been related to reduction of body weight. The next step will be to manipulate these genes and this pathway in human patients—likely those who carry the mutations that predispose them to obesity—to see if the intervention has an effect on their weight and fat composition.